Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

Volumen 72, núm. 3, A050520, 2020


Geología de recursos minerales de uso agrícola en Argentina


Geology of mineral resources for agricultural use in Argentina


Carlos Jorge Herrmann1,*


1Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Pabellón 2 Ciudad Universitaria. Intendente Guiraldes 2160. Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Argentina.

* Autor para correspondencia: (C. J. Herrmann) This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


How to cite this article:

Herrmann, C. J., 2020, Geología de recursos minerales de uso agrícola en Argentina: Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 72 (3), A050520.



Argentine geology exposes lithogenetic belts and favorable environments for the generation of deposits of minerals and rocks strongly required by agriculture, both sources of nutrient elements as corrective applications or amendments (gypsum, calcium and magnesium carbonates, potassium salts, phosphoric rocks and borates, among the main ones).Geological environments of formation of gypsum deposits in Argentina are five: in the Neuquén basin, deposits mainly corresponding to the lithogenetic belt of Cretaceous-Tertiary marine and coastal deposits and Jurassic-Cretaceous marine deposits; in the Pampean region deposits belong to quaternary evaporitic deposits in salt flats and endorheic basins; in the west and center-west of Argentina they correspond to the girdle of neogene basin deposits and cretaceous continental deposits, while in the south-west of Mesopotamia they belong to the lithogenetic belt of pleistocene palustre-lacustrine basin deposits.Potassium resources belong to endorheic basins of the Puna with Li - K - B brines, and saline horizons with silvite in the Huitrín Formation forming part of the evaporitic sequence of the Neuquén basin.Geological environments for the formation of limestone and dolomite deposits in Argentina are seven: in the central region of the country deposits belong to two lithogenetic belts, the Precambrian-Cambrian basement (Ca and Ca-Mg) and to a lesser extent the deposits of neogene basins (Ca); in the Precordillera they correspond to Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate platform, while in Buenos Aires to upper Precambrian - Ordovician marine deposits. In the Neuquen Basin deposits belong to the lithogenetic belt of Jurassic-Cretaceous marine deposits. In the Neuquen Basin and the Central region, deposits of carbonate rocks (Ca and Ca-Mg) were also developed in the belt of cretaceous-tertiary marine and coastal deposits. In the province of Entre Rios (southern Mesopotamia, Argentina), they are linked to the lithogenetic belt of Miocene-Holocene coastal deposits.Phosphoric or slightly phosphoric rocks developed at the cretaceous and tertiary marine levels in Patagonia; in the Ordovician sediments of northwestern Argentina, mainly the eastern flank of the Eastern Cordillera with full record of Tremadocian age, and to a lesser extent in the Sub-Andean Sierras; and in phosphate limestones and phosphate sandstones of the lower Cretaceous of the Neuquen Basin.Borate deposits are located in the Puna and correspond to evaporitic facies of tertiary synogenic deposits and quaternary salt deposits.

Keywords: gypsum, carbonates, potassium, phosphorus, soil, agriculture production.