Articles

  

 

Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

Volumen 71, núm. 2, 2019, p. 397‒ 411

http://dx.doi.org/10.18268/ BSGM2019v71n2a10

 

 
 

 

Estudio magnético integral de flujos de lava del volcán Xitle: implicaciones arqueológicas sobre el abandono de Cuicuilco

Miguel Cervantes-Solano1,*, Gerardo Cifuentes-Nava2, Cecilia I. Caballero-Miranda2,

Avto Goguitchaichvili2, Héctor López-Loera3, Hugo Delgado-Granados4,

Juan Morales-Contreras2, Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi5

 

1Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro 8701, Ex-Hacienda de San José de La Huerta, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, México.

2Laboratorio Interinstitucional de Magnetismo Natural, Instituto de Geofísica Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro 8701, Ex-Hacienda de San José de La Huerta, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, México.

3División de Geociencias Aplicadas, IPICYT, Camino a La Presa de San José 2055, Lomas 4 sección, 78216 San Luis, San Luis Potosí, México.

4Departamento de Vulcanología, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la investigación Científica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04150 Coyoacán, CDMX, México.

5Laboratorio de Paleomagnetismo, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la investigación Científica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04150 Coyoacán, CDMX, México.

* This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract

The Xitle volcano is part of the Quaternary Chichinautzin volcanic field, located in the southern portion of the Valley of Mexico. The Xitle lavas were emplaced on the archaeological site of Cuicuilco, one of the first urban settlements of the Preclassic period in Mexico. This eruption had a great impact, since it caused great economic and social changes, favoring the consolidation of Teotihuacan as the dominant city in the Valley of Mexico. Available radiometric studies place the age of the eruption between 4000 to 1500 years BP (before present) and there is evidence that Cuicuilco abandonment was due to an eruption between 200 BC (Before Christ) and 200 AD (Anno Domini/ after Christ) without exact definition about the age of this event. Therefore, contributing to the accuracy of the age of the eruption continues to be of great interest. The results of new archaeomagnetic dating of rock samples from a sequence of lava flows from Xitle volcano located within the campus of the University of Mexico (UNAM) campus are presented below. A full geomagnetic vector and the field prediction model SHA.DIF.14K were used for such determinations. Two eruptive periods are identified, the first between 1742 and 1491 BC and the second, related to the eruption of Xitle volcano, between 79 BC and 595 AD. The age of the second period is compatible with the hypothesis of gradual abandonment of Cuicuilco and coincides with the accepted ages for the volcano᾿s most important eruptive period.

Keywords: Xitle, Archaeomagnetism, Cuicuilco, Valley of Mexico.