Articles

 

Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

Volumen 69, núm. 3, 2017, p. 529 ‒ 554

Caracterización granulométrica de los depósitos de abanicos aluviales en la Cuenca de Motozintla, Chiapas, México: un peligro geológico latente por eventos de inundación

Juan M. Sánchez-Núñez1,*, José Luis Macías2, Ricardo Saucedo3, David A. Novelo4, José J. Zamorano5, Fabiola Mendiola2

1 Instituto Politécnico Nacional-CIIEMAD. Calle 30 de junio de 1520 s/n, Barrio La Laguna Ticomán, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340, CDMX.
2 Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM Campus Morelia. Antigua carretera a Pátzcuaro no. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda San José de la Huerta C.P. 58190, Morelia, Michoacán, México.
3 Instituto de Geología, UASLP. Dr. Manuel Nava no. 5, Zona Universitaria C.P. 78240, San Luis Potosí, SLP, México.
4 Departamento de Sismología, Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM, Delegación Coyoacán, CDMX.
5 Departamento de Geografía Física, Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, Delegación Coyoacán, CDMX.

* This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstract

Motozintla basin is situated in the southern mountainous region of Chiapas State, Mexico, where debris flows have frequently occurred. These natural phenomena are latent geohazards for the population of Motozintla. Their sudden nature, their high energy, related unstable slopes (> 30°), rugged topography and anthropogenic footprint contribute to make them more dangerous. This basin is located in the western end of the left lateral Polochic fault — the structural limit of North America and the Caribbean plates. Tectonically, the basin encompasses alluvial fans and terraces that cut both sides of the plate boundary. This study deals with the alluvial fans that are composed of successive deposits, some separated by underdeveloped paleosoils. Granulometric characteristics of 57 deposits sampled in 30 stratigraphic columns were determined. The results revealed that most alluvial fans were sourced from immature flows (lithological, heterometric and various other sources) transported on steep slopes (> 30°) with less than 10 km of transport from the source. The repeated occurrence of these events in the past indicates that the events of debris flow are influenced by hydrometerological and seismological processes. This research is the first of its kind in an active tectonic setting of Mexico.

Keywords: Motozintla, alluvial fans, debris flows, geohazard.