Articles

 

Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

Volumen 68, núm. 3, 2016, p. 581‒598

Indicadores geomorfológicos para evaluar la vulnerabilidad por inundación ante el ascenso del nivel del mar debido al cambio climático en la costa de Tabasco y Campeche, México
 
Rodimiro Ramos Reyes1, Joel Zavala- Cruz2,*, Lilia María Gama Campillo3, Daniel Pech Pool1, Mario Arturo Ortiz Pérez4
 

1 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, LAIGE, Carretera Villahermosa-Reforma Km 15.5 S/N. Ranchería Guineo, 2a Sección, C.P. 86280, Villahermosa, Tabasco.
2 Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Tabasco. Periférico Carlos A. Molina S/N, CP. 86500, H. Cárdenas, Tabasco, México.
3 División de Académica de Ciencias Biológicas. Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. Carretera Villahermosa-Cárdenas km. 0.5 S/N, entronque a Bosques de Saloya. CP. 86150, Villahermosa, Tabasco, México.
4 Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, Investigación Científica, Coyoacán, CP. 04510, Ciudad de México, México.

* This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Abstract

The rise in sea level may affect 50 % of the world population that lives on the seashores, including vast areas of the states of Tabasco and Campeche, Mexico. The objective of the study was to identify the vulnerability of the coast of Tabasco and Campeche to flooding by sea level rise, based on geomorphologic indicators. With a geopedological approach, geomorphological landscapes and reliefs were differentiated, and used as indicators of vulnerability on a coastal strip with an average width of 20 km. The indicators were classified from very low to very extreme vulnerability. Variables measured were landform, elevation, type of rock, geomorphologic process, and distance from the shore. Eight geomorphologic landscapes were found in a surface of 22322.3 km2. Plains constitute 67 % of the area and were created through a process of accumulation of recent unconsolidated sediments. The remaining area has landscapes of terraces and sets of hills where denudation and karstification processes prevail. The most vulnerable landscapes are the coastal plains, low plains of lagoon flooding, and marsh plains. Standing out for their greater exposure are the beach ridges, fluvial-marine plains, depression peats, salt plains, delta tide, coastal dunes, and slump of resurgences that cover 48 % of the coast. The most vulnerable zone includes various coastal cities that house 437836 habitants, as well as the ecological reserves Laguna de Terminos, Los Petenes and Pantanos de Centla.

Keywords: coast, sea level rise, vulnerability and coastal geomorphology.