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Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana

Volumen 68, núm. 2, 2016, p. 339-356

Estimación de parámetros de transporte y mecanismos que gobiernan su respuesta frente a la contaminación: caso de estudio de un acuífero poroso clástico

María Laura Gomez1,*

1 Unidad de Hidrogeología, Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de Zonas Áridas, CCT- CONICET, Av. Ruíz Leal s/n, Parque Gral. San Martín. Mendoza. Argentina. C.P. 5500.

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Abstract

Among the major environmental problems facing Argentina is poor management of urban waste, which in most cases is dumped in poorly designed landfills that have a significant impact on the environment and human health. The management of waste in the Coronel Moldes municipality, in the south of Córdoba province, is an example of lack of control and management. In 1982, the disposal of solid waste was sent northeast of the town, an area of 11 ha that was chosen without prior studies. The aim of this paper is to improve the conceptual model for the transport of pollutants from the urban effluents into a porous clastic aquifer, considering the mechanisms that influence the transport of harmful elements, in order to be able to model and control their behaviour. A unidimensional model of the reactive transport of contaminated groundwater was applied. It considers leaching and the composition of the accumulation of liquid effluents through a column of sediment and water from the aquifer. The results indicate that the transport process that controls the progress of the contaminants in the aquifer is mainly advective, predominating over the dispersive component, which is less significant. The fine-grain sandy silt makes up a system in which the advective flow predominates over the dispersive flow. Given the acquirer’s hydrogeology, diffusion is considered negligible, and the dispersibility varies with scale. This study lays the foundation for the applica tion of geochemical modelling in loess aquifers in the southern part of the Province of Cordoba and other similar environments. The study aims to predict and control the movement of contaminants through physical and chemical studies of the groundwater, geochemical models, the definition of possible reactions, hydrochemistry evolution, and production of the behaviour of undesirable elements in the natural environment. The models proposed in this study are for estimating impacts on groundwater, but integrated water management will help develop land and resources to increase social and economic welfare of the population without affecting the environment.

Keywords: Groundwater, loess, advective flow, dispersivity, urban waste .


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