Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana
Volumen 67, núm. 2, 2015, p. 145-166
Retos y oportunidades para el aprovechamiento y manejo ambiental del ex lago de Texcoco
Arón Jazcilevich Diamant1, Christina Siebe2,*, Claudio Estrada3, Javier Aguillón4, Alberto Rojas5, Elizabeth Chávez García1, Claudia Sheinbaum Pardo4
1 Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. CP 04510, México.
2 Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. CP 04510, México.
3 Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Mor. CP 62580, México.
4 Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. CP 04510, México.
5 Consultora Geoda, Geosistemas y Desarrollo Ambiental S.C., Avenida Insurgentes Sur No. 3493 Edif. 19, Depto. 102, Col. Villa Olímpica, Deleg. Tlalpan, México D.F. CP 14020, México.
The lacustrian plain of former lake Texcoco is an extensive non-urbanized area within a large megacity. It has high land use potential for the development of conservation and recreation projects, and also for the generation of renewable energy. Besides, it has the potential of fulfilling relevant ecological functions such as the regulation of surface run-off, temperature and air quality. Four proposals are presented for the management of this area to promote the economic development of the central region of Mexico under sound environmental conditions. These proposals are: a) regeneration of soil and vegetation, b) regeneration of lacustrine areas, c) management of solid organic residues, and d) generation of solar electricity and heat. These proposals arose from expert opinion during two multidisciplinary workshops. The proposals are compatible, have legal foundations and take advantage of the geography and current environment of the Texcoco area in a sustainable and productive way. We conclude that a combination of the options presented increases land use potential and allows mitigation of the various environmental and water management problems affecting this region.
Recently, the expansion of the International Airport of Mexico City in the Texcoco area was announced. This puts the development of this area at a crossroads: it could be used for an airport or it could be used to mitigate energy, hydraulic and air quality problems to promote the environmental, economic and social development of the central region of the country, as the described proposals claim.
Keywords: Air quality, revegetation of saline and alkaline soil, hydrological regulation, renewable energy, urban waste management, airport.