Vol 65, Núm. 3, 2013, P. 457-480

La Formación Chivillas en Tehuacán, Puebla, México: definición, análisis de facies y procedencia

 Claudia Cristina Mendoza-Rosales1,*, Gilberto Silva-Romo1, Elena Centeno-García2, Emiliano Campos-Madrigal1, Mónica Rodríguez-Otero1

1 Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F.
2 Departamento de Geología Regional, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F.

* This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


We propose formally the Chivillas Formation, as a key litostratigraphic unit to decrypt the sedimentary record of Cuicateca basin. Its type locality is along Barranca Las Salinas creek northeastern ward Tehuacán, Pue., where the rocks are virtually without deformation. Chivillas Formation consists of basaltic flows frequently with pillow structure and siliciclastic deposits of turbidite currents and debris flows, on a very thick volcanosedimentary succession cut by dikes of similar composition. Estimate a total thickness of more than 4,875 m. Chivillas Formation is assigned at Barremian based on the maximum age of detrital zircon within sandstones, this age is consistent with previously reported fossil content.

We recognized 16 facies into five classes: conglomeratic, sandy, fine, calcareous and igneous, which are grouped as eight facies associations: A) Medium-grained turbidites, B) Coarse-grained turbidites, C) Fine-grained turbidites, D) Structureless sandstones; E) Debrites clast supported, F) Debrites matrix supported; G) Synsedimentary disharmonic folds and H) Lavas and pillow lavas. From the recognized facies associations, we interpreted an environment of submarine fan deposit.

The volcanic rocks of Chivillas Formation are alkaline mafic to intermediate, geochemical affinity MORB or OIB, with common lead isotopic values similar to values of enriched mantle, the isotopic signature Pb/Pb of lavas suggests a source from lower crust.

The sandstones studied are graywackes composed mainly of monocrystalline quartz, mylonitic polycrystalline quartz, mosaic polycrystalline quartz, perthitic microcline, and some plagioclase; very abundant siltstone and limestone lithics, and fewer volcanic and metamorphic lithics, similar to granite or granulite gneiss; the clasts are angular to subrounded. The clasts into conglomerates are of limestone, sandstone (cross-stratified) and gneiss. These lithologies are typical of the Sierra de Juárez mylonitic Complex and Oaxaca Complex, and its sedimentary cover. Only few volcanic lithic in sandstones and some levels with pyroclastic falls were observed. The sandstones have their source on continental blocks, specifically from inner craton or uplifted basement, so we can assume that came from Oaxaquia. The presence of Pan-African-Brazilian zircons indicates a source from Gondwana; probably, they were transported by complex river systems within an advanced step on the rifting process of Gulf of Mexico.

Keywords: turbidites, Gulf of Mexico, Barremian, rift, submarine fan, detrital zircons.